The Science of Foundation Clumping | Lab Muffin Beauty Science

The Science of Foundation Clumping | Lab Muffin Beauty Science



hi it’s Michelle from lab muffin beauty
science chemistry PhD and fan of makeup
I’m not all that experienced with makeup
even though I do really enjoy playing
with it but I’ve had a lot of people ask
me to do a video about the science
behind makeup products I am by no means
an expert on makeup but I do find the
science behind it really interesting so
here is foundation compatibility if you
like this sort of video give it a thumbs
up subscribe to my channel and click the
notification bell you might have had the
experience where you’re doing your
makeup in the morning and you put on
your sunscreen or primer or
moisturizer and then you put your
foundation on on top and then a few
hours later you look in the mirror and
your foundation is all speckly like
you’re a pointillist painting or
something you probably didn’t bring your
foundation out with you and so you can’t
really fix it and so you’re just stuck
spending the rest of the day hanging out
with only really short sighted people
this is foundation incompatibility or
foundation clumping so here we have
freshly applied foundation it’s pretty
even zoomed in it’s going to be a lot
less even but if you look at it from a
distance from a normal person distance
it looks even and over here we have the
clumped up foundation you can see that
the pigment started to bunch together
and you can see the bare skin poking
through and a few bits what exactly is
happening and what can you do to avoid
it let’s talk about the science behind
foundation what exactly is a foundation
I mean what exactly is it
most products in skincare and makeup are
emulsions and foundation is one of them
an emulsion contains two substances that
don’t really mix together like oil and
water
if you shake oil and water together they
separate after a while but if you add an
emulsifier or a surfactant a chemical
that lacks both water and oil
the two will be forced to hang out like
if you have two friends who don’t really
like each other but they both come to
your birthday party they’ll put up with
it because you’re there keeping them
both happy to make an emulsion you have
to put in energy to make an unstable
emulsion you just shake the two together
like oil and vinegar if you want to make
a stable emulsion like a mayonnaise you
can use something like a food processor
to mix the oil and vinegar with the egg
acting as the emulsifier just like the
mayonnaise a foundation has its two
liquid phases mixed together with an
emulsifier in an industrial mixer if we
zoom into the foundation microscopically
you can see that there are droplets of
one liquid dispersed in the other the
liquid in the droplets is called the
inner phase and the liquid around it is
the outer phase the emulsifier sits in
between them pinning them together and
stopping them from separating my
mayonnaise here is an oil in water
emulsion that means there are oil
droplets sitting in the water oil is the
inner phase and water is the outer phase
foundations are usually designed so that
the skin colour pigment is mostly in the
outer phase and so when you spread it on
your skin it goes on smoothly rather
than in little droplet dots historically
the first emulsions used in foundations
were both oil in water and water in oil
but in the past 20 years or so a special
kind of liquid called silicones became
much more popular silicones don’t mix
with water and they don’t always mix
with oil either silicones are special
because they’re really really slippery
and so when they used as the outer phase
of a foundation the health is spread
evenly across skin without caking or
requiring a lot of skill on your part so
even someone like me who’s not that
Greater makeup especially before 9 a.m.
I can still apply it without looking
like an abstract painting at the end
silicones are also really good at
forming flexible
that lasts for a long time on your skin
and so this meant that cosmetic
formulations could make long wear
foundations on top of these benefits
silicones also don’t feel greasy and
because they’re not technically oils and
oils have bad rap for acne prone skin so
foundations can use silicones and call
themselves oil-free which is great for
marketing which is the real reason
anyone does anything in the beauty
industry and so because of all of these
advantages water and silicone
foundations are now more than 90 percent
of all liquid foundations you’ll come
across so armed with this knowledge what
can we work out about foundation
clumping and how to stop it to look nice
your foundation has to form a thin film
on your skin that’s flexible and doesn’t
get disturbed by sweat and face oil but
it also has to feel comfortable while
it’s on your skin it’s a bit tricky to
predict exactly when a foundation will
clump up when you layer it with other
products a general rule is that it will
happen when the outer phases of their
formulas don’t match let’s say we use a
water in silicone product under a water
in silicone foundation the outer phases
are silicone and since silicones mixed
with silicones well the outer phases
will mix nicely and the water droplets
should mostly stay separate and so you
end up with a nice blend you might still
get some disturbance but it should still
mostly look normal but say instead you
use a silicone in water product and then
immediately put a water in silicone
foundation on top this time
the outer phases don’t match the water
and the silicone in the outer phases
don’t like each other
and so they’ll repel you’ll end up with
patchy clumping instead of a continuous
even layer of foundation and so the
safest thing to do is to match the outer
phases so how do you know what the outer
phase is the outer phase is often called
the base but I think that’s a little bit
confusing and that’s because you don’t
always have more of the outer phase in
my mayonnaise for example the outer
phase is water even though the recipe
has about five times as much oil that’s
because
the quantity of the ingredients isn’t
what tells you what becomes the outer
phase it’s the way you mix it together
and the emulsifier is used I poured the
oil into the vinegar and so the vinegar
stayed on the outside unfortunately we
don’t have hidden cameras and cosmetic
factories yet so we’ll have to make an
educated guess instead for foundations
almost all liquid foundations that
you’ll find in stores these days are
water in silicone emulsions if the
ingredients list has silicones in the
top four ingredients it’s almost
guaranteed that it’s a water in silicone
emulsion you’re looking for ingredients
that end in cone or siloxane remember
that since the interface can have more
stuff than the outer phase water can
still be above silicones in the
ingredients list common silicones you’ll
find in foundations are cyclo penta
siloxane dimethicone and phenol
traumatic own if there aren’t any
silicones near the top of the
ingredients list the main way you can
tell is from the texture of the
foundation oil and water emulsions are
usually runya if it’s a thick cream or
if it’s solid it’s probably water in oil
this still isn’t an exact way of telling
but it will give you a guide for
everything else like primers and
moisturizers there isn’t really an
overwhelmingly popular type of emulsion
unlike from foundations and you can’t
tell from the ingredients list but here
are some things that might point you in
the right direction if you look at the
texture of the product oil in water
emulsions are usually running and they
sink into your skin faster water and oil
emulsions are usually thicker and richer
but silicones can blur the lines here
you can also look at what happens when
you wet the product with water if it
feels really greasy when you’re trying
to wash it off your hands with just
water the outer phase is probably oil or
silicone the type of product it is can
also give you a clue some products will
use a particular emulsion type more
often primers usually have silicon or
water as the outer phase thin
moisturizers usually have water as the
outer phase thick moisturizers usually
have oil as the outer phase waterproof
sunscreens are usually water in oil or
water in silicone but these still aren’t
absolute ways of testing it the best way
is probably to test the conductivity of
the emulsion since water conducts
electricity but silicones and oil stones
the emulsion will only conduct if water
is the outer or continuous phase
sometimes even making sure the outer
faces match won’t entirely prevent
clumping some products are designed so
that the emulsion breaks really easily
when it’s applied and so the structure
doesn’t stay the same after you’ve
applied it sometimes oils just don’t mix
with silicones your skin also produces
oil throughout the day as you’re wearing
your foundation and so this extra oil
can also disrupt your foundation film so
what else can you do even after you’ve
analyzed your products and you’re doing
all the right things
if the clumps there are still a few more
things you can try firstly you should
test the product combination out on your
skin before you plan to use it this is
pretty obvious but there’s no substitute
for testing the products that you’re
actually planning to combine on your arm
or on your face when you’re not rushing
to get somewhere on time you can also
wait in between layers of product when
you’re applying an emulsion product as
you rub it in a lot of the droplets will
end up merging together and so you end
up with layers on your skin the water
can then evaporate into the air or
absorb into your skin and so this means
you’ll left mostly with just oil in your
skin and so if you put other products
with oil or silicone as the outer phase
on top like your standard foundation
it won’t repel as much if you try to
apply one of these products before the
water on top evaporates you might still
get some repulsion you can also try
using less product underneath so there’s
a better chance that I’ll sink into your
skin and so there’s less repulsion using
a thicker foundation can help as well
thicker foundations are usually more
stable and so they won’t move around on
your skin as much and break up you can
also try using a setting spray when a
setting spray dries the polymers in them
turn into a clear film that helps hold
the foundation in place and so it can’t
move around as much in clump up you can
also try your applying a light layer of
powder before your foundation which is
also called the Wayne Goss method the
powder can suck up any extra oil that
your skin produces before it makes it up
and reaches your foundation none of
these methods are guaranteed to work
but they can help so I hoped you liked
this video
since it is a little bit different from
my usual skincare videos you can leave
me a comment and let me know what other
makeup science you want me to talk about
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science see you next time


The Science of Foundation Clumping | Lab Muffin Beauty Science


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